Mobile usability is Google's meat and potatoes project these days - by that I mean it's taking up a big section on their plate. An article in SEL reveals that Google's Accelerated Mobile Pages Project will be integrated into the search engine by February of 2016.
Marketing Land defines the Accelerated Mobile Pages project as "a Google-backed project intended as an open standard for any publisher to have pages load quickly on mobile devices." Simple enough. For details, you can find the AMP's main site here.
The official blog announcement describing the project's gains and goals indicates that pages using AMP may receive a ranking boost. They may also be labeled as "fast" in Google mobile SERPs. None of that is guaranteed of course, but it's something to speculate about.